Paul critical thinking

Critical thinking – in being responsive to variable subject matter, issues, and purposes – is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of thinking, among them: scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking, and philosophical thinking. He taught beginning and advanced courses in critical thinking at the university level for over 20 years. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. His body of work, including eight books and over 200 articles, established him as an internationally-recognized authority on critical thinking. Contemporary critical thinking scholars have expanded these traditional definitions to include qualities, concepts, and processes such as creativity, imagination, discovery, reflection, empathy, connecting knowing, feminist theory, subjectivity, ambiguity, and inconclusiveness. Paul and Scriven go on to suggest that critical thinking is based on: “universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. First wave” logical thinking consisted of understanding the connections between two concepts or points in thought.

All reasoning contains inferences or interpretations by which we draw conclusions and give meaning to data. After a careful review of the mountainous body of literature defining critical thinking and its elements, UofL has chosen to adopt the language of Michael Scriven and Richard Paul (2003) as a comprehensive, concise operating definition: . Habitual utilization of the intellectual traits produce a well-cultivated critical thinker who is able to: . All reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, to settle some question, to solve some problem. As such it is typically intellectually flawed, however pragmatically successful it might be. Critical thinking can be seen as having two components: 1) a set of information and belief generating and processing skills, and 2) the habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to guide behavior. Paul’s wide-ranging knowledge, practical strategies, and enthusiasm made him highly sought-after as a presenter and keynote speaker.

It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: purpose, problem, or question-at-issue, assumptions, concepts, empirical grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions, implication and consequences, objections from alternative viewpoints, and frame of reference. Critical thinking — in being responsive to variable subject matter, issues, and purposes — is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of thinking, among them: scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking, and philosophical thinking. The intellectual standards that are to these elements are used to determine the quality of reasoning. Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. The Foundation for Critical Thinking seeks to promote essential change in education and society through the cultivation of fair-minded critical thinking. Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker.

The subject is complex, and there are several different definitions which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis or evaluation of factual evidence. In addition to writing books for every grade level, he experimented extensively with teaching tactics and strategies, and with devising (among other things) novel ways to engage students in rigorous self-assessment. The intellectual traits associated with a cultivated critical thinker that result from the consistent and disciplined application of the intellectual standards to the elements of thought. Paul’s wide-ranging knowledge, practical strategies, and enthusiasm made him highly sought-after as a presenter and keynote speaker. Critical thinking is that mode of thinking – about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. The ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking. Consistent application of the standards of thinking to the elements of thinking result in the development of intellectual traits of: . It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: purpose, problem, or question-at-issue; assumptions; concepts; empirical grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions; implications and consequences; objections from alternative viewpoints; and frame of reference.

National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking[4] defines critical thinking as the “intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. We offer here overlapping definitions, together which form a substantive, transdisciplinary conception of critical thinking. The ability to think critically calls for a higher-order thinking than simply the ability to recall information. Definitions of critical thinking, its elements, and its associated activities fill the educational literature of the past forty years.

During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged.